BEIJING lies in the north of the North China Plain, at 39°56′N and 116°20′E. it neighbors the Tianjin Municipality in the east, and borders Hebei Province on three sides-the north, west and south. The terrain of the Beijing area slopes from the northwest to the southeast. Mountains snake round the city's north, west and northeast, while the southeast part of the city is a plain that slopes gently toward the coast of the Bohai Sea. The Yongding, Chaobai and Juma rivers and the north section of the Grand Cannel crisscross the area under Beijing's jurisdiction. Most of the rivers originate from mountainous areas in the northwest, cut through mountains and zigzag through the plain in the southeast before emptying into Bohai Sea.
Beijing belongs to the warm temperate zone with a semi-humid climate. It has four distinctive seasons, with short springs and autumns while summers and winters are always long. Annual temperatures average 12.8℃. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of -6.4℃,and July, the hottest with an average temperature of 29.6℃. The annual precipitation s measured at 371.1mm, and the frost-free period is 196 days.
Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It covers 16,807.8 square kilometers. Mountainous areas occupy 10,417.5 square kilometers, accounting for 62% of the city's landmass. The rest, 6390.3 square kilometers or 38% of the total, are flatland. The municipality governs 14 urban districts and 4 rural counties.
Beijing lies in the continental monsoon region in the warm temperature zone and its climate represents as hot and rainy in summer and cold and dry in winter.
The four seasons in Beijing are distinct. It is dry, windy and sandy in spring and hot and rainy in summer. Autumn is the best season in a year when the sky is blue; the air is crisp, mild and humid. However, winter is cold and dry with little snow. The average temperature throughout a year is 11.7. The average temperatures of the hottest month, July and the coldest month January range from 27 and -4.6. The shorter seasons, spring (usually from February to April) and autumn (usually from August to October) are better seasons for visiting Beijing when it is sunny and warm with few tourists crowding in the attractions.
If you come to Beijing in spring, you could wear a thin sweater, a pair of sweat pants, and a coat. But sometimes it may be a good idea to bring a warm cap because it is windy and sandy during this period though it is not cold. In summer the temperature could reach as high as 30. When you go out, you could take an umbrella along with you if it doesn't bother you much, because a downpour may come unexpectedly at evenings from July to August. Autumn is the most beautiful season, but after October you may feel the constant changes of the weather and you may encounter light rains at any moment. So it is better to bring some heavy clothes with you. In winter, you need a heavy woolen sweater, and a long wind coat or a down jacket. Generally there will be two or three heavy snowfalls each winter, so it is always wise for you to have anti-skidding shoes with you when you come. Lastly, don't wear light-color clothes in winter.
Bilingual weather information can be obtained if you dial 121 in Beijing.
As the capital city of the People's Republic of China,Beijing is the nation's political and cultural center and also a center for international contacts.
The recorded history of Beijing as a city can date back to more than 3,000 years ago. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty
(c. 11th century-771 B.C.), the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) and the Warring States Period (475-221 B.C.), Beijing was the capital city of the State of Yan, which was ruled by dukes or princes under the emperor. From the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.) and the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.) to the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127),Beijing was a major city and also a strategic point in northern China.
When the Qidan (Khitan) people founded the Liao Dynasty (907-1125),they established Beijing, which was then under their occupation and was called Jiuzhou, as the secondary capital under the name of Nanjing (southern capital). Afterwards, the dynasties of Jin(1115-1234), Yuan (1271-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) all chose Beijing as their capital city.
In 1928, the Nanjing-based nationalist government of the Republic of China designated Beijing as the Beiping Special Municipality. In 1930, the municipality was renamed as Beiping City.
On September 27, 1949, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference decided that the newborn People's Republic of China would base its capital in Beiping and renamed the city as Beijing.
Structure of Municipal
The Beijing Municipal People's Congress is the organ that exercises state power in the area under Beijing Municipality's jurisdiction. Deputies to the district and county people's congresses are chosen through direct election. Deputies to the Beijing Municipal People's Congress are elected by the people's congresses of the districts and counties. The Municipal People's Congress elects a standing committee to serve as its permanent body. The mayor and deputy mayors are chosen at Congress sessions through election. The Congress serves a term of five years.
The People's Government of Beijing Municipality is the executive body of the Beijing Municipal People's Congress and the administrative body exercising state power in the area under jurisdiction of the municipality. It works under the leadership of the State Council, China's Central Government. The People's Government of Beijing Municipality exercises the following powers:
--Implementing decisions of the Beijing Municipal People's Congress and its Standing Committee;
--Implementing decisions and orders of the State Council;
--Adopting administrative measures and promulgating decisions and orders;
-- Exercising leadership over the work of its own working departments and people's governments at district and county level;
--Executing municipal plans and budgets for economic and social development, and administering undertakings of economy, education, science, culture, public health and urban and rural construction, as well as administrative work related to finance, civil affairs, public security, ethnic groups, law-enforcement, supervision and family planning in the area under its jurisdiction. The Municipal Government consists of the mayor, deputy mayors, a secretary-general, and directors of different municipal commissions, offices and bureaus. The People's Government of Beijing Municipality is elected for a term of five years.
The Beijing Municipal Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is the municipal organization of patriotic united front work. Led by the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), it comprises representatives from the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee, the various democratic parties, non-party democrats, non-governmental organizations and ethnic minorities as well as overseas Chinese and compatriots from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and guest members. All local organizations of China's eight democratic parties are represented in the CPPCC Beijing Municipal Committee, and so are local people's organizations. The Committee serves a term of five years.